3.1. ArchOnto

Working Draft, 15 September 2021

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Abstract

This specification describes ArchOnto, a linked open data model. ArchOnto adopts a semantic web approach and encompasses the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model and additional ontologies, envisioning interoperability with datasets curated by multiple communities of practice. Its goal is to serve as the foundation for the development of a knowledge graph prototype and new applications for the archives.

Status of this document

TODO: Parágrafo sobre desenvolvimento atual e futuro desenvolvimento da ArchOnto

The ArchOnto specification is produced as part of the Entity and Property Inference for Semantic Archives (EPISA) project at INESC TEC to provide authoritative documentation of the contents, status and purpose of the linked data model known as ‘ArchOnto’.

Table of Contents

Glossary

ArchOnto

CIDOC-CRM – CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model

DataObject

ISAD (G) - International Standard for Archival Description

ISAD Ontology

Link2DataObject

N-ary

1. Introduction

TODO: Parágrafo(s) da introdução.

In the figure below there is an application example of ArchOnto ontology.

2. Architecture

ArchOnto is a modular data model that integrates five ontologies, dealing with complementary aspects of the archival domain, as illustrated in figure 1. The five ontologies are:

In addition to these five ontologies, ArchOnto has its own classes and properties, created as extensions to CIDOC-CRM. Classes are used to specialize concepts already present in CIDOC-CRM but which needed to be adapted to include controlled vocabularies that exist in the archives. CIDOC-CRM. In addition to these classes, the ontology also includes three properties which provides a control structure for the admissible nesting of units of description. Names for classes are preceded by ARE (from ARchival Entity), and those for properties are preceded by ARP (from ARchival Property).

Figure 1. ArchOnto architecture

3. Classes and Properties

Full detail regarding each class and property can be found in the following subsections: 3.1. Archonto, 3.2. DataObject, 3.3. N-ary, 3.4. CIDOC-CRM, 3.5. ISAD Ontology and 3.6. Link2DataObject.

Class hierarchy within ArchOnto’s ontologies

Ontology Classes
CIDOC-CRM E35 Title
ArchOnto - ARE2 Formal Title
ArchOnto - ARE2 Supplied Title
CIDOC-CRM E39 Actor
ArchOnto - ARE12 Organization
CIDOC-CRM E54 Dimension
ArchOnto - ARE4 Extension
CIDOC-CRM E55 Type
ArchOnto - ARE1 Level of Description
ArchOnto - ARE5 Identifier Type
ArchOnto - ARE6 Date Type
ArchOnto - ARE7 Name Type
ArchOnto - ARE8 Role Type
ArchOnto - ARE9 Date Certainity
ArchOnto - ARE11 Documentary Typology
ArchOnto - ARE13 Subject Type
ArchOnto - ARE14 Place Type
ArchOnto - ARE15 Acquisition Type
ArchOnto - ARE16 Event Type
DataObject DOE1 DataObject
DataObject - DOE2 AuthorityFile
DataObject - DOE3 Boolean
DataObject - DOE4 Date
DataObject - - DOE9 Approximate
DataObject - - DOE10 Instant
DataObject - - DOE11 Interval
DataObject - DOE5 Decimal
DataObject - DOE6 GeospatialCoordinates
DataObject - - DOE12 Latitude
DataObject - - DOE13 Longitude
DataObject - - DOE14 Polygon
DataObject - DOE7 Integer
DataObject - DOE8 String
DataObject - - DOE15 AuthorityString
DataObject - - - DOE8 PersonName
DataObject - - DOE16 RegexString
N-ary PC0 CRM Property
N-ary - - PC14 Carried Out By

Property hierarchy within ArchOnto’s ontologies

Ontology Property Domain Range
ArchOnto ARP8 upper level ARE1 Level of Description ARE1 Level of Description
ArchOnto ARP9 lower level ARE1 Level of Description ARE1 Level of Description
Link2DataObject L2DO hasValue E1 CRM Property DOE1 DataObject
N-ary P01 has domain PC0 CRM Property E1 CRM Entity
N-ary P01 has range PC0 CRM Property E1 CRM Entity
DataObject DOP1 approximateDateValue DOE9 Approximate xsd:dateTime
DataObject DOP2 endDateValue DOE11 Interval xsd:dateTime
DataObject DOP3 fileLocation DOE15 AuthorityFile xsd:string
DataObject DOP4 hasRegex DOE16 RegexString xsd:string
DataObject DOP5 name DOE17 PersonName xsd:string
DataObject DOP6 startDateValue DOE11 Interval xsd:dateTime
DataObject DOP7 stringValue DOE8 String xsd:string
DataObject DOP8 timestamp DOE10 Instant xsd:dateTime
CIDOC-CRM P2 has type E1 CRM Entity E55 Type
ArchOnto - ARP12 has level of description E31 Document ARE1 Level of Description
CIDOC-CRM P3 has note E1 CRM Entity
ISAD Ontology - ISAD1 has title E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD2 has level of description E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD3 has reference code E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD4 has type of title E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD5 has date E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD6 has dimension and support E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD7 has administrative history E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD8 has archival history E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD9 has scope E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD10 has access condition E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD11 has current quota E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD12 has old quota E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD13 has original quota E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD14 has language E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD15 has relatd unit of description E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD16 has existence and location of copies E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD17 has publication notes E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD18 has notes E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD19 has system of arrangement E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD20 has physical characteristics E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD21 has description date E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD22 has last modification E31 Document xsd:string
ISAD Ontology - ISAD23 has predominant date E31 Document xsd:string

ArchOnto

ArchOnto is a modular data model that integrates five ontologies, dealing with complementary aspects of the archival domain. The five ontologies are: - CIDOC-CRM (base ontology); - N-ary; - DataObject; - ISAD Ontology; - Link2DataObject.

In addition to these five ontologies, ArchOnto has its own classes and properties, created as extensions to CIDOC CRM. Classes are used to specialize concepts already present in CIDOC CRM but which needed to be adapted to include controlled vocabularies that exist in the archives. In addition to these classes, the ontology also includes three properties which provides a control structure for the admissible nesting of units of description. Names for classes are preceded by ARE (from ARchival Entity), and those for properties are preceded by ARP (from ARchival Property).

Classes


ARE1 Level of Description
The first ISAD(G) element to be considered in the description of a document is its Level of Description, represented in ArchOnto through the ARE1 Level of Description class. This class is a subclass of E55 Type and is associated with a document (E31 Document) through the property ARP12 has level of description.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE1
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties:
- ARP8 upper level
- ARP9 lower level
- ARP12 has level of description
Example values:
- Fonds
- Series
- Section
- File
- Item
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://www.episa.inesctec.pt/ArchOnto#ARP12_has_level_of_description">
   <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/P2_has_type"/>
   <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/E22_Man-Made_Object"/>
    <rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://www.episa.inesctec.pt/ArchOnto#ARE1_Level_of_Description"/>
    <rdfs:label>ARP12 has level of description</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>


ARE2 Formal Title
The second ISAD(G) element to be considered in the description of a document is its Title, represented in ArchOnto through the ARE2 Formal Title or ARE3 Supplied Title classes. The ARE2 Formal Title class, a subclass of E35 Title, indicates that the type of title used in the document record is formal, originated in the document.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE2
Superclass: E35 Title
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Acção cível de fretes em que é autor António Henriques Leal e réu António Esteves Costa
- Gabinete da Área de Sines


ARE3 Supplied Title
The second ISAD(G) element to be considered in the description of a document is its Title, represented in ArchOnto through the ARE2 Formal Title or ARE3 Supplied Title classes. The ARE3 Supplied Title class, a subclass of E35 Title, indicates that the type of title used in the document record is supplied, assigned by an archivist.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE3
Superclass: E35 Title
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Juízo da Índia e Mina
- Mosteiro de São Bernardo de Portalegre
- Inventário por óbito de Manuel Joaquim Ferreira Lino


ARE4 Extension
This class allows to indicate the document’s extension in order to distinguish the different uses given to this field.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE4
Superclass: E54 Dimension
Subclasses: -
Related properties:
- P43 has dimension
- P90 has value
- P91 has unit
Example values:
- 13 maços
- 21 folhas


ARE5 Identifier Type
ISAD(G) allows several types of identifiers. ARE5 Identifier Type class allows to specify the identifier type. This class is a subclass of E55 Type and is linked to E42 Identifier through the property P2 has type.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE5
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: P2 has type.
Example values:
- Reference Code
- Physical Location
- Original Numbering
- Previous Location


ARE6 Date Type
This class allows to indicate a date type, which may be a predominant date, of production, death, birth, etc.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE6
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Exact dates
- Inferred dates
- Predominant dates


ARE7 Name Type
This class allows to indicate a name type, which can be a nickname, last name or last name.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE7
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Authorized form of name
- Another Form of the Name
- Parallel Name Form


ARE8 Role Type
This class allows to indicate the role of an individual in a given event.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE8
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: P14.1 in the role of.
Example values:
- Producer
- Material Author
- Recipient


ARE9 Date Certainty
This class allows to indicate which is the certainty relatively to a date.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE9
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Certain
- Uncertain


ARE11 Documentary Typology
This class allows to indicate which is the documentary typolgy of a document.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE11
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Certificate
- Income book
- Patent


ARE12 Organisation
This class allows to indicate that some activity’s actor is an organisation.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE12
Superclass: E39 Actor
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values: -


ARE13 Subject Type
This class allows to indicate which is the subject of a document.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE13
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Education
- Science
- Law
- Management


ARE14 Place Type
This class allows to indicate which type of place is described, such as a country, municipality or parish.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE14
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Ocean
- Archipelago
- Mountain range
- Country
- District


ARE15 Acquisition Type
This class allows to indicate the type of acquisition of a document, such as purchase, transfer, donation, etc.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE15
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Purchase
- Giving
- Donation
- Deposit
- Swap
- Legacy
- Reintegration
- Transfer


ARE16 Event Type
This class allows to indicate which type of event is present in a document.
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARE16
Superclass: E55 Type
Subclasses: -
Related properties: -
Example values:
- Evaluation
- Expertise
- Financial management

Properties

ARP8 upper level
This property relates a level of description with the upper levels where it may be aggregated (aggregate).
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARP8
Domain: ARE1 Level of Description
Range: ARE1 Level of Description
Inverse: ARP9 lower level
Example values:
-


ARP9 lower level
This property relates a level of description with the lower levels where it may be aggregated (aggregate).
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARP9
Domain: ARE1 Level of Description
Range: ARE1 Level of Description
Inverse: ARP8 upper level
Example values:
-


ARP12 has level of description
This property relates a given document to its level of description (E22 Human-Made Object).
URI: https://purl.org/episa/archonto/ARP12
Domain: E31 Document
Range: ARE1 Level of Description
Inverse: -
Example values:
-